Gerbangindonesia.org – Multiverse Is: Understanding, Levels, Theory, and Formation of the Universe. When discussing the Multiverse, there are actually various theories that support the truth of this. In short, this Multiverse is the term used to describe that beyond this universe in which we live, there are other universes. So there is a possibility that we have a twin who lives in another universe.
Then, what exactly is the Multiverse? What are the theories that support the existence of the Multiverse? What is the concept of the universe according to experts? So, so that Grameds is not confused about this, let’s look at the following description!
What is Multiverse?
Basically, the universe is very wide and it is not even known whether there is an end or no limit, because its existence is really that vast! Reporting from Zenius.net, the Multiverse concept was introduced to the public by an American physicist named Hugh Everett III.
In 1954, Hugh was chatting with his friends in the hall of Princeton University as well as thinking about a theme for his final thesis which was in the form of a thesis. While in the middle of that conversation, Hugh suddenly thought what if the existing quantum effects could actually cause the universe to split apart. Then, another universe appeared. Well, the idea that suddenly occurred to him was later developed into a thesis and even his theory still survives to this day.
Based on Hugh Everett’s thesis entitled Theory of The Universal Wave Function, there is a theory that says that all of us on earth from this universe have copies living in other universes. In short, there is another version of ourselves in that other universe and it is possible that we are not the only ones who exist.
Levels In The Multiverse
Since the existence of the universe is so vast that it is impossible to even measure the limits and ends, the theory has not yet been solved or disproved. This is also supported by a physicist named Max Tegmark from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) who revealed the existence of this Multiverse. In 2014, he revealed in his book entitled Our Mathematical Universe that our entire universe may consist of only elements, atoms, or endless cosmic islands.
Reported on Gerbangindonesia.org, Max Tegmark also wrote a scientific article entitled “Parallel Universe” with the result that there are 4 levels in the Multiverse.
Level I: Beyond Our Cosmic Horizon
In this level, it illustrates that the universe where we live has the form of air bubbles that are jostling with each other in space-time which is called the universe. Tegmark uses an analogy like we are looking at a ship in the middle of the sea. When the ship is beyond the horizon or eye sight, then we cannot see it. However, when the ship enters the horizon and approaches us, then of course we can see the ship little by little.
Level II: Other Postiflation Bubbles
In this level, it is based on the Chaotic Eternal Inflation Theory, which states that the universe has continued to expand which has been increasingly ‘enlarging’ since the Big Bang, and it has been happening until now. In Level II: Other Postiflation Bubbles it states that the universes that exist at level I can later be grouped into one Multiverse, so that means that this universe will have many Multiverses.
Well, based on that theory, we will forever not be able to see another Multiverse, because the universe is developing rapidly.
Level III: Quantum Many World
In theory based on the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, which states that randomly occurring quantum processes can cause the universe to be branched and infinite in number.
There is a difference between levels I and III, namely the location of the universe. At level I, it states that our universe with the ‘other’ universe is beyond the horizon. Meanwhile at level III, it states that our universe with the ‘other’ universe is in a different quantum branch.
Level III, which is based on Quantum Mechanics Theory is the most controversial concept.
Level IV: Other Mathematical Structures
In this level IV, it has been proven by two physicists named Dr. Robert Foot and Dr. Saibal Mitra from Australia. They managed to find research on the asteroid Eros in the form of Mirror Matter. In this Mirror Matter, there is a mirror image of something that exists in the universe, functioning as a stabilizer of the universe. The existence of this Mirror Matter has two sides, namely the left side is the universe, while the right side is Mirror Matter itself. Currently, we cannot see the existence of the Mirror Matter because something is interacting This action with our universe is only through gravity.
This parallel world level in level IV actually states that the ‘other’ universe is not only outside the horizon of our universe, but also differs in various aspects, ranging from time, law, and physics to our universe. Therefore, this level at level IV is difficult to visualize.
So, it can be concluded that the Multiverse or this parallel world is a hypothesis which states that outside the universe in which we live, there are other universes. So there is a possibility that we have a twin who has almost the same life and lives in another universe.
Theory Supporting the Multiverse Concept
This discussion of the Multiverse does not just happen, because it turns out that there are various theories that support the concept of this parallel world, most of which are from the fields of physics and philosophy. Well, here are some theories that support the concept of the Multiverse!
1. Infinite Universe
In this theory, scientists cannot be certain about what the shape of space-time in the universe is like, but they have a hypothesis that the shape of space-time in this universe is flat and its expanse is infinitely wide. However, if the space-time can last forever, then that means it can repeat itself at a time, because there are finite and manageable particles in that space-time.
In short, you can find yourself in another version in another space-time. Some of these ‘twins’ may be doing the same thing you are doing right now, while other ‘twins’ are doing something different. In fact, in this theory there is a possibility that your ‘twin’ actually makes different decisions (eg majoring in college) with you in this universe.
2. Daughter Universe
The theory of the existence of the Multiverse concept actually follows the Theory of Quantum Mechanics. The Daughter Universe or Many Worlds Theory is put forward by Hugh Everett, who states that this universe has created a ‘copy’ for every possible outcome of the current situation.
For example, in this universe, you are reading a Detective Conan comic, then in another universe you might be writing your Indonesian assignment essay or even gardening. This corresponds to “every possible outcome of the current situation.”
3. Bubble Universe
This theory was coined by a cosmologist named Alexander Vilenkin of Tufts University. He stated that we can see space-time as a whole, with some areas of space bulging and getting bigger. This theory is almost the same as the Mutiverse level at level II huh!
In this theory, the ‘other’ universe actually has very different physical laws from what exists in this universe, because the two are not related.
4. Mathematical Universe
This theory was coined by Max Tegmark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2012, which states that there is a mathematical structure that can change depending on where you are currently located.
5. Parallel Universe
This theory has become the most discussed theory of the Multiverse concept. This is because in this theory it states that human life both in this universe and in other universes can occur simultaneously. Not only that, quantum experts believe that every second of this universe, another universe or parallel world will be created. However, each of these universes is not aware of the existence of the other universes and cannot be certain which one is the “real” universe.
The Formation of the Universe Based on the Big Bang Theory
According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), “nature” means “everything that exists in the heavens and the earth (including the earth itself, stars, power)”; while “universe” means “all”, “all”, “all”. So it can be concluded that the universe or the universe is everything that is in the space-time where we are, including the energy and matter in it.
In this universe includes the existence of microcosm and macrocosm. Microcosms are objects that have very small sizes that cannot even be seen with the naked eye, such as atoms, cells, electrons, amoeba, and others. Then, the macrocosm is objects that have a very large size, even planet earth is also included in the macrocosm. Examples are stars, planets, galaxies, and others. Please note that there are many events that occur in the universe that have not been revealed or explained through scientific theory by humans, including the concept of the Multiverse.
Previously, several times had been written about the Big Bang Theory, which is a theory that is still believed to be about the formation of the universe. Well, here is an explanation of the Big Bang Theory which became the forerunner of various theories about the universe, including the concept of the Multiverse!
Big Bang Theory
This theory was first coined by Edwin Hubble, who later also received support from the leading physicist, namely Albert Einstein. In the Big Bang theory, it states that the universe was formed because of a huge explosion of giant atoms that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. Not only that, this theory is also supported by a Muslim scientist named Prof. Baiquni, according to him, this theory is in accordance with what is stated in the Qur’an.
Basically, the Big Bang Theory states that at that time the universe was still a primeval atom that contained matter in a very dense state. Then one day, the atom exploded and caused all of its matter to be thrown into the space of the universe. From this, arise two opposing forces with each other, then called the gravitational force and the cosmic force. Due to the existence of these two forces, the cosmic force becomes more dominant so that the universe will continue to expand.
The Development of the Big Bang Theory
Before Edwin Hubble came up with this theory, Vesto Slipher at that time (1942) managed to measure the Doppler shift of a “spiral nebula” for the first time. This “Spiral Nebula” is an old term for a spiral galaxy. Slipher at that time found that almost all of the nebulae were actually moving away from planet Earth. Then, controversy arose as to whether these nebulae were “Islands of the Universe” outside the Milky Way galaxy.
Later, a cosmologist and mathematician from Russia, Alexander Friedmann also derived the equations of general relativity. In these equations, it shows that in this universe there is a possibility to expand and is contrary to the static universe model, almost the same as what was proposed by Albert Einstein.
In 1924, Edwin Hubble succeeded in measuring the distance of the closest spiral nebula to planet Earth. The result is that the spiral nebula is another galaxy. Furthermore, in 1927, George Lematre also derived Friedmann’s equation which stated that the recession of the nebula was caused by the expanding universe.
Then, only in 1948 to 1949, Fred Hoyle coined the term Big Bang on a radio broadcast. Although previously, Hoyle had previously suggested the existence of the Steady State Theory which was exactly the opposite of this Big Bang Theory. The Steady State Theory states that the universe has infinite size and will last forever.
In 1964, there was the discovery of CMB which strengthened the existence of the Big Bang theory as a theory of the creation of the universe in the form of an enormous explosion from zero with an infinitely high density and temperature.
Well, that’s an explanation of what the multiverse is and the theories that support the existence of this parallel world.